澳门最快开奖现场直播

Abstract: 鈥楢li ibn Abi Talib (599-661 CE) was the first cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad; the fourth of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs (al-khulafa鈥 al-rashidun); and the first of the Imams deemed by all Shi鈥榠 Muslims to be appointed by divine mandate. The word Shi鈥榠 itself is derived from the term shi鈥榓t鈥 鈥楢li, which means 鈥減artisans of 鈥楢li.鈥 Few figures of nascent Islam had as pervasive and enduring an influence-both symbolic and actual颅-on the unfolding of Islamic thought, culture, and spirituality as Imam 鈥楢li. Referred to by the Prophet as the 鈥済ate鈥 to the city of prophetic science, one of the most noticeable features of his legacy for medie颅val Islam is indeed the range of disciplines - from theology and exegesis to calligraphy and numerology, from law and mysticism to grammar and rhetoric 颅that are regarded as having been foreshadowed by Imam 鈥楢li.

Author

Dr. Reza Shah-Kazemi

Founding editor of the Islamic World Report, Reza Shah-Kazemi studied International Relations and Politics at Sussex and Exeter Universities before obtaining his PhD in Comparative Religion from the University of Kent in 1994.听

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